Commercial construction involves the designing, renovating and building of commercial structures. Projects use heavy equipment funded by developers, as well as local and national governments.

Developers and contractors compete for construction contracts by submitting proposal bids. The more detailed and accurate the plan, the better chances of winning the project. The size, budget and scope determine how much money it will cost to break ground and complete a build. Value engineering can also be used to predict the most accurate and cost-efficient project plan.


Residential construction is different than commercial construction, because these buildings are used for people to live in instead of working in. While many people think that single family homes are residential construction, the category also includes multi-family homes, apartments, condominiums, and even mobile homes.

For each residential construction project, a piece of land is purchased, cleared, and graded. The drainage and other features are added and then the construction of the building takes place. Once the home is finished, a person moves in and the contractor moves on to their next project.


Modern technology has revolutionized our lives the way we knew it. Whether it be a hospital or a shopping mall, today everything is well-equipped with technological tools that are playing their part in making our lifestyle fit to the modern standards.

Therefore, when one chooses to do shopping in a mall, he/she prefers to have everything that they need under one roof. Besides, shops for clothing, bags, shoes, cosmetics, cookware, and home decor one can find a play area, food court, entertainment activities, departmental stores, money exchange options, etc. These features have made shopping malls beyond recognition.


Road construction is the establishment of an engineered, unbroken right-of-way or roadbed that overcomes geographical barriers and has levels low enough to allow for car or foot traffic, and is needed to follow legal or official norms.

The building of modern roads necessitates the elimination of natural barriers as well as the use of newly developed building materials that are much more resilient and long-lasting. The steps of the road-building process, in a nutshell, are:

When laying an AC (asphalt concrete) layer, it is best to do so over a bituminous foundation or binder course. Bitumen is spread at a rate of 6.0–7.5 kilogramme per 10 sq.m for the tack coat; for the non-bituminous base, this rate may be raised to 7.5–10 kg.


uilding a hotel is a huge financial investment, and as such, there can be no room for error. Moreover, this type of project will require an extensive and highly professional team, including a general contractor and an architect, an extensive construction crew, legal support, and much more. This is why you want to assemble your A-team from the start and develop a trusting relationship with them in order for the project to run smoothly.

It’s not just about who bids the lowest price - sometimes it’s better to make a greater investment in a team that will truly deliver on their promises, remain within the projected timetable, and understand your needs and desires on a deeper level. Remember, the contractor needs to provide you with a unique solution, so avoid cookie-cutter project plans.


Bottom Line. Your restaurant floor plan dictates your entire operation's workflow, from kitchen and dining areas to customer amenities like waiting areas and restrooms. Allocating about 40% of your total area to the kitchen is the industry standard, with 60% for your customer-facing areas.

The station layout is suited for large operations like hotel restaurants, catering kitchens or event space kitchens. Restaurants with small kitchens should avoid the station-based configuration as it doesn't allow for multitasking. You'll need ample space and staff to make this type of kitchen function smoothly.


The Energy Commission is the chief building official for projects that it licenses. The Energy Commission is responsible for plan review and construction inspection in accordance with the California Building Standards Code and the approved decision for the project.

The Energy Commission’s inspection and enforcement program ensures that permitted thermal power plants are operated, maintained, and decommissioned in accordance with the respective permits and laws.


The modern method is to construct large parts of the hull, for example, the complete bow and stern. Each of these parts is built up from subassemblies or component parts, which are then welded together to form the complete bow or stern. These sections of the ship are manufactured under cover in large sheds, generally at some distance from the building berth, before being transported to the berth and there fitted into place and welded to the adjacent section. The advantages of this procedure are that work can proceed under cover, unhampered by bad weather, and the units or component parts can be built up in sequences to suit the welding operations—not always possible at the building berth itself.

Before the official sea trials, dockside trials are held for the preliminary testing of main and auxiliary machinery. Formal speed trials, necessary to fulfill contract terms, are often preceded by a builder’s trial. Contract terms usually require the speed to be achieved under specified conditions of draft and deadweight, a requirement met by runs made over a measured course.


Then comes the simulation stage, computers are used again to do initial simulations of the aircraft. After that small models of all the design or just certain parts of the plane are made and tested in wind tunnels to tests and experience its aerodynamics.

The other companies oftentimes produce the components that go into the plane. Or just produce the parts that go into making the major components. A company for instance can be responsible for producing airplane windows. And as this process is not limited to companies in the same city as the manufacturing plant or even the same country, sometimes airplane parts can come from all over the world.


Rooftop Gardens are intensive green roofs with a total depth between 12 and 18 inches. Drainage layer depth can vary between 2 inch to 4 inches. Growing medium depth can vary between 8 and 14 inches. The intended plant palette consists of ground covers, perennials, ornamental grasses, and shrubs.

10 feet is considered to be standard height after taking into account other factors(like the false ceiling). The height of the roof affects the ventilation, and temperature and influences the atmosphere of the room. Buildings with higher roofs are relatively cooler.


There are multiple steps involved when constructing a new or altering an existing mobilehome or special occupancy park. There are both state and local government requirements to meet and approvals to obtain. Alterations to an existing utility system, facility, or permanent building within a park require a Permit to Construct from the enforcement agency.

Plan's must be drawn to scale and be of sufficient clarity to indicate the nature and extent of the construction proposed. Provide detailed drawings conforming to the provisions of the California Code of Regulations, and all applicable laws, ordinances, rules, and regulations. The first sheet of each set of plans must give the location of the proposed construction, name and address of the owner, and name of the person preparing the plans.

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